Anatomy and Physiology Guided Reading Chapter 1-The Human Organism
1. What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?
-Anatomy investigates the structure of the body. Anatomy means to cut, dissect, or cut apart parts of the body to study. Physiology deals with the process or functions of different living things. Human physiology is the study of different organisms of the body.

2. Write down the six levels of structural and functional organization from smallest to largest. Use the diagram on page 3 to guide yourself.
 -Chemical Level -Organ Level-Cell Level-Organ Sytem Level -Tissue Level -Organisim Level

3. Write down the 11 organ systems in the body and a brief description of the main functions of that system as well as which organs are part of that system.
i. Integumentary System: provides protection, regulates temperature, prevents water loss, and
See full size image
See full size image
produces vitamin D precursors. Consists of hair, skin, nails, and sweat glands.

ii. Skeletal System: provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fats. Consists of bones, associated cartilages, liagments, and joints.
external image skeletal-system-2.jpg
iii. Muscular System: produces body movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat. Consists of muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons.external image chart-muscular.jpgiv. Lymphatic System: removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fats from the digestive tract. Consists of he lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs.external image Bild_Medizin_lymphatic-system.jpgv. Respitory System: exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood pH. Consists of the lungs and respitory passages.
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vi. Digestive System: performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorbtion of nutrients, and elimination of wastes. Consists of the mouth, esophogus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs.external image digestive-system.jpg
vii.Nervous System: a major regulatory system that detects sensations, controls movements, physiologic processes, and intellectual functions. Consists of the brain, spincal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.external image central-nervous-system.jpg
viii.Endocrine System: a major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions. Consists of glands, such as the pituitary, that secrete hormones.external image endocrine%20system.gifix. Cardiovascular System: transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temperatures. Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood.homeimage.jpgx. Urinary System: removes wastes products from the bloos and regulates pH, ion balance, and water balance. Consists of the kidneys, urinary bladder and ducts that carry urine.external image f27-1al_urinary_system__c.jpg
xi.Reproductive Systems:Female: produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development; produces milk for newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors. Consists of ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structures.external image FemaleReproductiveSystem.gifMale: produces and tranfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors. Consists of testes, accessory structures, ducts and penis.external image male.gif
4. What is homeostasis? How does the graph below represent the concept of homeostasis? Use the terms set point and normal range.Homeostasis is the body's way of trying to maintain its balance or normal levels that it should stay content at. Homeostasis helps regulate blood pressure, heart rate, pH, oxygen, sugar, temperature, and etc. The chart shows homeostasis by the set point. This shows when the body is at the normal level the body will try to fix it to be content again. (EXPLAIN SET POINT AND NORMAL RANGE BETTER -1)

5. What is a negative feedback mechanism? Mechanisms by which any deviation from an ideal normal vaule or set point is resisted or neglected; returns a parameter to its normal range and thereby maintains homoestasis. (ALWAYS WRITE IN YOUR OWN WORDS -1)
6.. What are the 3 components of the negative feedback mechanism and what is a description of each? 1.) receptor- monitors the value of a variable such as blood pressure.
2.) Control center- such as part of the brain, establishes the set point around which the variable is maintained.
3.) Effector- such as the heart, can change the value of the variable.

7. Use the diagram on page 8 to complete the exercise below. Choose a statement on the right side and write down the number next to that statement on the text boxes on the left in the correct order. Box#1-> sentence 3. Box#2-> sentence4(red). Box#3.-> sentence5(Green). Box#4-> sentence1(Blue). Box#5-> sentence6(blue). Box#6-> Sentence2.

Color the box with the receptor RED, color the box with the control center GREEN and color the box with the effector(s) BLUE in the chart above.

8. Provide another example of negative feedback in your body. For that example answer the following:
i. What is the change in your body that goes outside the normal range?
Change in body temperature.

ii. What are the receptors that detect this change?

iii. What area of the brain is the control center that receives these changes and orders the effectors to react to these changes? The control center is the temperature is told by message from the receptors. HYPOTHALAMUS (-1)
iv. What are the effectors and what do they do to restore values back to the normal range?
The body stores itself to normal range by sweating due it cools the body down. The internal organs are protected by an increase in heat from the extremities and heart beats.

9. Some people say that negative feedback is like the thermostat in your house keeping the temperature in your house at a certain level. Explain how the thermostat in your house is like negative feedback. Explain what happens when the temperature goes below and/or above the temperature that you set on your thermostat. What are the effectors in this analogy? What is the control center in this analogy?
The control center would be the dial, which is told by us to cool or heat the house. When the temperature is no longer in its normal range. The effectors which are the objects and people become uncomfortable and change the dial to make it remain back to normal.

10. What is positive feedback? is it different from negative feedback?
 Positive feedback is when a deviation from a normal value occurs, the response of the system is to make the deviation greater. This creates a cycle leading away from homeostasis. A problem that can't be fixed by increasing pressure or flow and results in a new problem that leads to death.
external image homeostasis-pregnancy-positive-feedback.jpg

11.. Positive feedback can be and often is harmful to your body and can result in death. Explain how blood loss can trigger a positive feedback mechanism that can result in death. Use the graph below to guide your answer. Include the following:
i. Blood loss
ii. Decreased blood pressure
iii. Decreased amount of blood reaching the heart

After extreme blood loss, blood pressure decreases to the point at which delivery is inadequate. This causes the cardiac muscles to not function normally. The heart pumps less blood causing the blood pressure to drop further, and blood pressure can't systain cardiac muscle which results in killing the person. JAYO SAYS EXPLAIN BETTER -5

12. What is an example of a positive feedback mechanism that is actually beneficial and normal in our bodies? Explain.
An example or positive feedback is birth near the end of pregnancy. The uterus is stretched by the baby, which stimulates contracting of the uterine muscles. The uterine contractions push the baby against the opening which results in stretching it more. This positive-feedback sequence ends when the baby is delivered and the stretching stimulus is eliminated.
external image hysterectomy-2.jpg

Terminology that helps you visualize and communicate the location of organs and regions in the body is invaluable for a health professional to know in order to be successful. The following questions are designed to make you familiar with that terminology.
13. If I told you to stand in the anatomical position, how would you stand? Describe.

14.If I told you to lay supine, how would you lie? What about prone?

15. What are serous membranes? What is the difference between the visceral and parietal membranes? Explain how a serous membrane surrounding an organ is like your fist being pushed through an inflated balloon. Explain what the fist and different layers of the balloon represent.

16 What are the names of the serous membranes surrounding:
i. The heart?
ii. The lungs?
iii. The abdominal organs?
17. Complete the following questions from the Critical Thinking section on page 18 (answers must be in your own words)
i. #1

ii. #2

iii. #3

iv. #5

v. #6

vi. #8

vii. #9red-janitzapink-ashley