Anatomy and Physiology Guided Reading Chapter 1-The Human Organism
1. What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? Anatomy examines the body structures and phycology examines the functions.
2. Write down the six levels of structural and functional organization from smallest to largest. Use the diagram on page 3 to guide yourself. hi_im_a_loser.gif
3. Write down the 11 organ systems in the body and a brief description of the main functions of that system as well as which organs are part of that system.
i. integumentary system_gives protection, regulates temperature etc. consists of skin, nails and sweat glands external image f5-1_layers_of_the_inte_c.jpg
ii. external image Skeletal_System_Front.JPGskeletal sustem- gives support, alllows body movements, stores minerals and fat. Consists of bone, associated cartilages, ligaments and joints
iii. muscular system- gives body movement, maintains posture, and provides body heat. Consists of muscles.external image ZOO-234-Muscular-System-Anterior-View.jpg
iv. lumphatic sustem- removes forgein substances from the blood, consists of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes.external image Bild_Medizin_lymphatic-system.jpg
v. respiratory system- exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the air and regulates blood pH. lungs and respiritory pasagesexternal image respiratory-system-overview.jpg
vi. digestive system- proforms the mecanical and chemical processes of digestion. mouth, esophagus, stomach, 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vii. nervous system- detects sersation and controls movement and physiologic processes. brain, spinal cord, nerves
Nervous system
Nervous system

ix. endocihe system- inflencesgrowth, reproduction and other functions.external image 1endopic.gif
x. urinary system- ion balance, water balance. kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urineexternal image urinary-system.jpg
xi. reproductive system- female= fertilazation, feeding male= sperm, ovories, glands, testies, penis, uterusexternal image uchr_02_img0144.jpgexternal image Female_reproductive_system_lateral.jpg
4. What is homeostasis? How does the graph below represent the concept of homeostasis? Use the terms set point and normal range. homoeostasis is keeping the body"s internal environment consistant. The graph below shows how the the body's enviornment changes and goes up and down from the set point but still stays in normal range.

f1-4_homeostasis_c.jpg


5. What is a negative feedback mechanism?
A negative feedback mechanism maintains variation to keep homeostasis inside the normal range by making deviations around the set point smaller.
6.. What are the 3 components of the negative feedback mechanism and what is a description of each? - Receptor: monitors the value of a variable such as blood pressure- Control center: establishes the set point around wich the variable is maintained- Effector: changes the value of the variable
7. Use the diagram on page 8 to complete the exercise below. Choose a statement on the right side and write down the number next to that statement on the text boxes on the left in the correct order.  3,4,5,6/1,2


Color the box with the receptor RED, color the box with the control center GREEN and color the box with the effector(s) BLUE in the chart above.

8. Provide another example of negative feedback in your body. For that example answer the following:
i. What is the change in your body that goes outside the normal range?
Decreas in body temperature

ii. What are the receptors that detect this change?
Brain, muscles, blood

iii. What area of the brain is the control center that receives these changes and orders the effectors to react to these changes?
Medulla oblongata

iv. What are the effectors and what do they do to restore values back to the normal range?
The muscles quickly contract to produce heat, the blood holds the heat and transports it through the body, and the pores on the skin keep the heat inside th body.


9. Some people say that negative feedback is like the thermostat in your house keeping the temperature in your house at a certain level. Explain how the thermostat in your house is like negative feedback. Explain what happens when the temperature goes below and/or above the temperature that you set on your thermostat. What are the effectors in this analogy? What is the control center in this analogy?
The thermostat regulates the temperature in the house around a set point. If the temperature goes above or abelo the normal range, the thermostat detects this change and sends a signal to the main AC/heating unit to maintain the normal range. The effectors are the main heating/AC units. The control enter is the thermostat.






10. What is positive feedback? is it different from negative feedback?
Positive feedback make any deviation from a normal range greater instead of less. It is different from negative feedback because negative trys to reverse the deviation.



11.. Positive feedback can be and often is harmful to your body and can result in death. Explain how blood loss can trigger a positive feedback mechanism that can result in death. Use the graph below to guide your answer. Include the following:
i. Blood loss
ii. Decreased blood pressure
iii. Decreased amount of blood reaching the heart
When blood loss occurs, blood pressure decreases. As a resut, a decreased amount of blood reaches the heart so it can't function correctly. This causes the heart to not pump enough blood and goes in an ongoing cycle.
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12. What is an example of a positive feedback mechanism that is actually beneficial and normal in our bodies? Explain.Giving birth is a positive feedback mechanism that is normal. When the baby is being pushed out the uterus streches to a greater size than normal. The stretching causes contractions in the uteren muscles pushing the baby out.






Terminology that helps you visualize and communicate the location of organs and regions in the body is invaluable for a health professional to know in order to be successful. The following questions are designed to make you familiar with that terminology.
13. If I told you to stand in the anatomical position, how would you stand? Describe.
Standing up with the face forward, arms hanging to the side and the palms facing forward.

14.If I told you to lay supine, how would you lie? What about prone?

Supine is when the individual is laying on their back with their face upward.


Prone is laying face downward.






15. What are serous membranes? What is the difference between the visceral and parietal membranes? Explain how a serous membrane surrounding an organ is like your fist being pushed through an inflated balloon. Explain what the fist and different layers of the balloon represent.

A serous membrane is a tissue which covers the trunk cavities in the body it consists of two layers the parietal layer and the visceral layer. The serous membrane is like your fist because the fist represents the organ the outer part surrounding the fist represent the serous membrane. The inner part of the balloon represents the visceral membrane, the outside of the balloon is the parietal membrane.
The difference between visceral and parietal is that the parietal membrane is the outer layer of the cavity and visceral is the inner layer.





16 What are the names of the serous membranes surrounding:
i. The heart? Pericardial
ii. The lungs? Pleural
iii. The abdominal organs? peritoneal
17. Complete the following questions from the Critical Thinking section on page 18 (answers must be in your own words)
i. #1 D: Negative feedback mechanisms can be inadequate without medical intervention, the transfusion interrupted a positive feedback mechanism.


ii. #2 Student B. Because while Bruce was in Gym class pumping some iron his blood pressure was increasing meaning that his muscles require more oxygen the body then increases the blood flow and the blood pressure.


iii. #3 A: Inferior B: Dorsal C: Distal D: Lateral


iv. #5 Proximal to the engagement ring.


v. #6 Pancreas: epigastric, right hypochondriac, right upper quadrantUrinary bladder: hypogastric, right/left lower quadrant


vi. #8 Parietal pleura, pleural cavity, visceral pleura, left lung, visceral pleura, pleural cavity, parietal pleura, parietal pericardium, pericardial cavity, visceral pericardium and heart.

vii. #9 It is possible to view the kidneys without breaking the periteum because they are retroperitoneal. Blue: Yelena, Green: Aaron, Pink: Alisha, Orange: Irina